Parts of speech:
I have a brown leather chair by the window, and I often sit there in the morning to listen to music.
In the sentence above, I is a pronoun; chair, window, morning and music are all nouns; have, sit and listen are verbs; brown and leather are adjectives; often is an adverb; by and to are prepositions; the is a definite article; a is an indefinite article; and is a conjunction or link word.
Here are two more examples:
We saw an elephant at the zoo yesterday.
Elephant and zoo are nouns; saw is a verb; at is a preposition; an is an indefinite article; the is a definite article.
It was a cold night, so I walked quickly.
Was and walked are verbs; cold is an adjective; night is a noun; quickly is an adverb; so is a link word.